43 Facts About Tajikistan


Territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam.

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On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan declared itself an independent sovereign nation as the Soviet Union was disintegrating.

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Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO, and CSTO as well as a NATO PfP partner.

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Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991.

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Some authors have suggested that in the seventh and sixth centuries BC, parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of the ancient Hindu Kambojas tribe before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BC.

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The following year, the Soviet Union collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence on 9 September 1991, a day which is celebrated as the country's Independence Day.

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In 2021, following the Fall of Kabul, Tajikistan allegedly got involved in the Panjshir conflict against the Taliban on the side of the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.

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Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan was plunged into a civil war that saw various factions fighting one another.

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Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the presidency and parliament, operating under a presidential system.

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In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Tajikistan, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region.

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In July 2021, Tajikistan appealed to members of a Russian-led Collective Security Treaty Organization of ex-Soviet states for help in dealing with security challenges emerging from neighboring Afghanistan.

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Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area.

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Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea.

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Tajikistan contains five terrestrial ecoregions: Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe, Gissaro-Alai open woodlands, Pamir alpine desert and tundra, Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert, and Paropamisus xeric woodlands.

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On 21 August 2001, the Red Cross announced that a famine was striking Tajikistan, and called for international aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan; however, access to food remains a problem today.

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The primary sources of income in Tajikistan are aluminium production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers.

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Tajikistan is home to the Nurek Dam, the second highest dam in the world.

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The World Bank Tajikistan Policy Note 2006 concludes that remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's economic growth during the past several years, have increased incomes, and as a result helped significantly reduce poverty.

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Drug trafficking is the major illegal source of income in Tajikistan as it is an important transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; some opium poppy is raised locally for the domestic market.

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UNODC is working with Tajikistan to strengthen border crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams.

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Tajikistan is an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization.

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Tajikistan belongs to the group of countries associated with Chinese investment within the Belt and Road Initiative.

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In recent years Tajikistan has pursued agreements with Iran and Pakistan to gain port access in those countries via Afghanistan.

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In 2009 Tajikistan had 26 airports, 18 of which had paved runways, of which two had runways longer than 3, 000 meters.

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Tajikistan has one major airline and is serviced by over a dozen foreign airlines.

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In 2004 the Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge between Afghanistan and Tajikistan was built, improving the country's access to South Asia.

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In 2021, Tajikistan was estimated to have a population of 9, 749, 625 as per the World Bank data.

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The ethnic German population of Tajikistan has declined due to emigration: having topped at 38, 853 in 1979, it has almost vanished since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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Two official languages of Tajikistan are Tajik as the state language and Russian as the interethnic language, as understood in Article 2 of the Constitution: "The state language of Tajikistan shall be Tajik.

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State language (Tajik:, Russian: ) of the Republic of Tajikistan is Tajik, which is written in the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet.

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The varieties of Russian spoken in Tajikistan are referred to by scholars as Taji Russian and it shares some similarities with Uzbe Russian, such as morphological differences and the lexical differences like the use of words ???? for a wild apricot or ???????? for rhubarb.

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Tajikistan has small communities of native speakers of Persian, Arabic, Pashto, Eastern Armenian, Azerbaijani, Tatar, Turkmen, Kazakh, Chinese, Ukrainian.

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The main urban centres in today's Tajikistan include Dushanbe, Khujand, Kulob, Panjakent, Bokhtar, Khorugh and Istaravshan.

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Tajikistan artisans created the Dushanbe Tea House, which was presented in 1988 as a gift to the sister city of Boulder, Colorado.

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Tajikistan considers itself a secular state with a constitution providing for freedom of religion.

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The territory of Tajikistan is part of the Dushanbe and Tajikistan Diocese of the Central Asian Metropolitan District of the Russian Orthodox Moscow Patriarchate.

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Tajikistan has experienced a sharp decrease in number of per capita hospital beds following the dissolution of the USSR, even though the number still remains relatively at 4.

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Tajikistan was ranked 103rd in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, down from 100th in 2019.

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Science on the territory of Tajikistan achieved great success already in the Middle Ages, but the current scientific organizations were created in the Soviet period.

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Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports, such as hill-climbing, mountain biking, rock climbing, skiing, snowboarding, hiking, and mountain climbing.

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Rugby union in Tajikistan is a minor but growing sport.

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Tajikistan has one ski resort, called Safed Dara, near the town of Varzob.

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