17 Facts About FRELIMO


FRELIMO has ruled Mozambique since then, initially as the sole legal party in a one-party system and later as the democratically elected government in a multi-party system.

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FRELIMO fought a protracted civil war from 1976 to 1992 against the anti-communist Mozambican National Resistance or RENAMO.

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FRELIMO approved a new national constitution in 1990, which ended one-party rule and established a multi-party system.

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FRELIMO was founded in Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika, on 25 June 1962, when three regionally based nationalist organizations: the Mozambican African National Union, National Democratic Union of Mozambique, and the National African Union of Independent Mozambique merged into one broad-based guerrilla movement.

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FRELIMO came to regard economic exploitation by Western capital as the principal enemy of the common Mozambican people, not the Portuguese as such, and not Europeans in general.

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Simango left FRELIMO and joined the small Revolutionary Committee of Mozambique liberation movement.

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FRELIMO established some "liberated" zones in Northern Mozambique.

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Portugal and FRELIMO negotiated Mozambique's independence, which resulted in a transitional government until official independence from Portugal in June 1975.

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FRELIMO established a one-party state based on socialist principles, with Samora Machel re-elected as President of FRELIMO and subsequently the First President of the People's Republic of Mozambique.

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FRELIMO transformed itself into a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party of the worker-peasant alliance at the congress.

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FRELIMO began extensive programs for economic development, healthcare and education.

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At the 4th Party Congress in 1984 FRELIMO acknowledged its mistakes in the economic field and adopted a new set of directives and plans, reversing their previous positions and promoting more peasant and communal based farming projects over the larger state farms, many of which were either dismantled or shrunk.

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FRELIMO's focus rapidly shifted from socialist construction to maintaining a basic level of infrastructure and protecting the towns and cities as best they could.

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Joaquim Alberto Chissano was elected as the President of FRELIMO and was inaugurated as the Second President of the People's Republic of Mozambique on 6 November 1986.

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In 1989 at the 5th Party Congress, FRELIMO officially dropped all references to Marxism–Leninism and class struggle from its party directives and documents, and democratic socialism was adopted as the official ideology of FRELIMO while talks continued with RENAMO to broker a ceasefire.

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FRELIMO believed it needed to reduce all traces of socialist influence, this resulted in the removal of hardline Marxists such as Sergio Viera, Jorge Rebelo and Marcelino dos Santos from positions of power and influence within the party.

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FRELIMO has received support from the governments of Tanzania, South Africa, Algeria, Ghana, Zambia, Libya, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, Egypt, SFR Yugoslavia and Somalia.

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