28 Facts About Italian unification


Some states that had been targeted for Italian unification did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria-Hungary in the First World War.

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Italian unification Wars saw 65 years of French attacks on some of the Italian unification states, starting with Charles VIII's invasion of Naples in 1494.

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The Italian unification tricolour waved for the first time in the history of the Risorgimento on 11 March 1821 in the Cittadella of Alessandria, during the revolutions of 1820s, after the oblivion caused by the restoration of the absolutist monarchical regimes.

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Many leaders of the Italian unification movement were at one time or other members of this organization.

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Italian unification escaped to South America, though, spending fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars, and learning the art of guerrilla warfare before his return to Italy in 1848.

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Austrian Chancellor Metternich warned Louis-Philippe that Austria had no intention of letting Italian unification matters be and that French intervention would not be tolerated.

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Italian unification was quickly defeated by Radetzky at Novara on 23 March 1849.

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Military weakness was glaring, as the small Italian unification states were completely outmatched by France and Austria.

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Italian unification was a modernizer interested in agrarian improvements, banks, railways and free trade.

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Italian unification opened a newspaper as soon as censorship allowed it: Il Risorgimento called for the independence of Italy, a league of Italian princes, and moderate reforms.

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Italian unification had the ear of the king and in 1852 became prime minister.

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Italian unification ran an efficient active government, promoting rapid economic modernization while upgrading the administration of the army and the financial and legal systems.

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Second War of Italian unification Independence began in April 1859 when the Sardinian Prime Minister Count Cavour found an ally in Napoleon III.

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Napoleon III's plans worked and at the Battle of Solferino, France and Sardinia defeated Austria and forced negotiations; at the same time, in the northern part of Lombardy, the Italian unification volunteers known as the Hunters of the Alps, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, defeated the Austrians at Varese and Como.

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Italian unification hoped to use his supporters to regain the territory.

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Italian unification's courage boosted by his resolute young wife, Queen Marie Sophie, Francis mounted a stubborn defence that lasted three months.

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Italian unification negotiated with the Emperor Napoleon for the removal of the French troops from Rome through a treaty.

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Italian unification'storians suggest that the referendum in Venetia was held under military pressure, as a mere 0.

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The Italian unification government took no direct action until the collapse of the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan.

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Italian unification never forgot, even in August 1870, a month before Sedan, that he was a sovereign of a Catholic country, that he had been made Emperor, and was supported by the votes of the Conservatives and the influence of the clergy; and that it was his supreme duty not to abandon the Pontiff.

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Politician, historian, and writer Gaetano Salvemini commented that even though Italian unification had been a strong opportunity for both a moral and economic rebirth of Italy's Mezzogiorno, because of a lack of understanding and action on the part of politicians, corruption and organized crime flourished in the South.

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Italian unification irredentism obtained an important result after the First World War, when Italy gained Trieste, Gorizia, Istria, and the city of Zara.

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The rhetoric of "Mutilated victory" was adopted by Benito Mussolini and led to the rise of Italian unification Fascism, becoming a key point in the propaganda of Fascist Italy.

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The main Italian unification sculptor was Antonio Canova who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh.

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Italian unification's most known painting The Kiss aims to portray the spirit of the Risorgimento: the man wears red, white and green, representing the Italian patriots fighting for independence from the Austro-Hungarian empire while the girl's pale blue dress signifies France, which in 1859 made an alliance with the Kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia enabling the latter to unify the many states of the Italian peninsula into the new kingdom of Italy.

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Vittorio Alfieri, was the founder of a new school in the Italian unification drama, expressed in several occasions his suffering about the foreign domination's tyranny.

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Niccolo Tommaseo, the editor of the Italian Language Dictionary in eight volumes, was a precursor of the Italian irredentism and his works are a rare examples of a metropolitan culture above nationalism; he supported the liberal revolution headed by Daniele Manin against the Austrian Empire and he will always support the unification of Italy.

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Italian unification's politics caused him to be frequently in trouble with the Austrian censors.

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