35 Facts About Cossack


The various Cossack groups were organized along military lines, with large autonomous groups called hosts.

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Cohesive Cossack-based units were organized and fought for both Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II.

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Cossack organizations operate in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belarus and the United States.

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Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are generally reported to have come into existence within what is Ukraine in the 13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, although some have ascribed their origins to as early as the mid-8th century.

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Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origin, descending from East Slavs, Turks, Tatars, and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe.

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Until at least the 1630s, these Cossack groups remained ethnically and religiously open to virtually anybody, although the Slavic element predominated.

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Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, and Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement.

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Cossack structure arose, in part, in response to the struggle against Tatar raids.

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Relations between the Hetmanate and their new sovereign began to deteriorate after the autumn of 1656, when the Muscovites, going against the wishes of their Cossack partners, signed an armistice with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in Vilnius.

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Around the end of the 16th century, increasing Cossack aggression strained relations between the Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.

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Cossack pirates responded by raiding wealthy trading port-cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, as these were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper river.

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Cossack numbers increased when the warriors were joined by peasants escaping serfdom in Russia and dependence in the Commonwealth.

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Finally, the King's adamant refusal to accede to the demand to expand the Cossack Registry prompted the largest and most successful of these: the Khmelnytsky Uprising, that began in 1648.

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Later, its high-ranking Cossack leaders were exiled to Siberia, its last chief, Petro Kalnyshevsky, becoming a prisoner of the Solovetsky Islands.

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Cossack units played a role in many wars in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, including the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Russo-Persian Wars, and the annexation of Central Asia.

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Don Cossack Host was either an independent or an autonomous democratic republic, located in present-day Southern Russia.

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Divisions between the elite and the lawless led to the formation of a Cossack army, beginning in 1667 under Stenka Razin, and ultimately to the failure of Razin's rebellion.

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In 1840, the Cossack hosts included the Don, Black Sea, Astrakhan, Little Russia, Azov, Danube, Ural, Stavropol, Mesherya, Orenburg, Siberian, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Sabaikal, Yakutsk, and Tartar voiskos.

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Nasir al-Din, who was widely regarded as a deeply superficial and shallow man, was not interested in having his Cossack Brigade be an effective military force, and for him merely seeing his brigade ride before him while dressed in their brightly colored uniforms was quite enough.

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In 1905, the Cossack hosts experienced deep mobilization of their menfolk amid the fighting of the Russo-Japanese War in Manchuria and the outbreak of revolution within the Russian Empire.

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The Persian Cossack Brigade had not been paid for months and proved to be dubious loyalty to the House of Qajar during the Constructional revolution while its Russian officers were uncertain what to do with Russia itself in revolution.

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Cossack assemblies were organized at regional level to elect atamans and pass resolutions.

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Subsequently, the Cossack homelands became bases for the White movement during the Russian Civil War.

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Cossack units were often ill-disciplined, and prone to bouts of looting and violence that caused the peasantry to resent the Whites.

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In Ukraine, Kuban and Terek Cossack squadrons carried out pogroms against Jews, despite orders from Denikin condemning such activity.

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Kuban Cossack politicians, wanting a semi-independent state of their own, frequently agitated against the AFSR command.

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Many poorer Cossack communities remained receptive to the communist message.

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The Cossack hosts were broken up among new provinces or autonomous republics.

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Rebellions in the former Cossack territories erupted occasionally during the interwar period.

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Cossack emigration consisted largely of relatively young men who had served, and retreated with, the White armies.

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Many Cossack accounts collected in the two volume work The Great Betrayal by Vyacheslav Naumenko allege that British officers had given them, or their leaders, a guarantee that they would not be forcibly repatriated to the Soviet Union, but there is no hard evidence that such a promise was made.

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Cossack was elected by the Host members at a Cossack rada, as were the other important officials: the judge, the scribe, the lesser officials, and the clergy.

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The traditional Cossack bulava serves as a symbol of the Ukrainian presidency, and the island of Khortytsia, the origin and center of the Zaporozhian Sich, has been restored.

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The Kuban Cossack Choir is a leading folkloric ensemble that reflects the dances and folklore of the Kuban Cossack.

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Cossack has the authority to recognize and dissolve new hosts.

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