41 Facts About Alexander the Great

1. Alexander the Great features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure.

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2. Alexander the Great sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture.

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3. Alexander the Great had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble.

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4. Alexander the Great lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.

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5. Alexander the Great adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court, notably proskynesis, a practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform.

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6. Alexander the Great began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon.

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7. Alexander the Great had a calmer side—perceptive, logical, and calculating.

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8. Alexander the Great had a high complexion and a harsh voice.

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9. Alexander the Great's eyes revealed a dewy, feminine quality.

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10. Alexander the Great never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered.

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11. Alexander the Great's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.

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12. Alexander the Great developed a fever, which worsened until he was unable to speak.

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13. Alexander the Great founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river, naming one Bucephala, in honour of his horse, who died around this time.

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14. Alexander the Great appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis.

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15. Alexander the Great was impressed by Porus' bravery, and made him an ally.

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16. Alexander the Great invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara, to come to him and submit to his authority.

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17. Alexander the Great founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate in modern Tajikistan.

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18. Alexander the Great viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him.

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19. Alexander the Great buried Darius' remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral.

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20. Alexander the Great sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road.

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21. Alexander the Great was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert.

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22. Alexander the Great proceeded to take possession of Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant.

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23. Alexander the Great left the government of Caria to a member of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander.

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24. Alexander the Great showed his intent to conquer the entirety of the Persian Empire by throwing a spear into Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a gift from the gods.

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25. Alexander the Great stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth.

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26. Alexander the Great spared Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.

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27. Alexander the Great had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV, executed.

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28. Alexander the Great began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne.

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29. Alexander the Great reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander.

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30. Alexander the Great fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossians.

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31. Alexander the Great was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt.

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32. Alexander the Great was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus.

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33. Alexander the Great is often ranked among the most influential people in history.

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34. Alexander the Great became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures.

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35. Alexander the Great founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt.

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36. Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia.

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37. Alexander the Great eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops.

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38. Alexander the Great was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia.

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39. Alexander the Great spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.

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40. Alexander the Great was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty.

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41. Alexander the Great's campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

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