53 Facts About Luxembourg


Luxembourg is a representative democracy headed by a constitutional monarch, Grand Duke Henri, making it the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy.

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Luxembourg is a developed country with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita.

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The city of Luxembourg was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and historic quarters.

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Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, the United Nations, NATO, and the Benelux.

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Multiple examples of archeological evidence proving their existence in Luxembourg have been discovered, the most famous being the "Oppidum of the Titelberg".

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Similar to what happened in Gaul, the Celts of Luxembourg adopted Roman culture, language, morals and a way of life, effectively becoming what historians later described as Gallo-Roman civilization.

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Christianization of Luxembourg falls into this epoch and is usually dated back to the end of the 7th century.

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Luxembourg is known for having founded the Schueberfouer in 1340 and for his heroic death at the Battle of Crecy in 1346.

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Luxembourg remained an independent fief of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1354, Charles IV elevated it to the status of a duchy with his half-brother Wenceslaus I becoming the first Duke of Luxembourg.

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Since Sigismund and Elizabeth of Gorlitz were both heirless, all possessions of the Luxembourg Dynasty were redistributed among the European aristocracy.

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The Duchy of Luxembourg become a possession of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.

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Luxembourg became part of the Spanish Netherlands in 1556, and when France and Spain went to war in 1635 it resulted in the Treaty of the Pyrenees, in which the first partition of Luxembourg was decided.

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In context of the Nine Years' War in 1684, France invaded Luxembourg again, conquering and occupying the Duchy until 1697 when it was returned to the Spanish in order to garner support for the Bourbon cause during the prelude to the War of the Spanish Succession.

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However the Fortress of Luxembourg resisted for nearly 7 months before the Austrian forces holding it surrendered.

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Luxembourg was annexed by France, becoming the departement des forets, and the incorporation of the former Duchy as a departement into France was formalised at the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797.

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At the Congress of Vienna the great powers decided that Luxembourg would become a member state of the newly formed German Confederation, but at the same time William I of the Netherlands, the King of the Netherlands, would become, in personal union, the head of state.

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At the time of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, Luxembourg's neutrality was respected by the North German Confederation, and neither France nor Germany invaded the country.

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Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms.

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In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourg's neutrality was violated again when Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht entered the country, "entirely without justification".

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In 1951, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1957 became the European Economic Community and in 1993 the European Union.

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Luxembourg is described as a "full democracy", with a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch.

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Luxembourg is divided into 12 cantons, which are further divided into 102 communes.

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Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration.

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Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community.

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Luxembourg is the site of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities and other vital EU organs.

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Luxembourg has participated in the Eurocorps, has contributed troops to the UNPROFOR and IFOR missions in former Yugoslavia, and has participated with a small contingent in the NATO SFOR mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Luxembourg has an oceanic climate, marked by high precipitation, particularly in late summer.

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In 2011, according to the IMF, Luxembourg was the world's second-richest country, with a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity basis of $80, 119.

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Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund center, the most important private banking center in the Eurozone and Europe's leading center for reinsurance companies.

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Luxembourg ranked third on the Tax Justice Network's 2011 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's major tax havens, scoring only slightly behind the Cayman Islands.

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In 2013, Luxembourg was ranked the 2nd safest tax haven in the world, behind Switzerland.

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Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands, and as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market.

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Luxembourg's government has never shared its tax revenues with the local authorities on the French border.

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Luxembourg has road, rail and air transport facilities and services.

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Luxembourg city reintroduced trams in December 2017 and there are plans to open light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.

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On 29 February 2020, Luxembourg became the first country to introduce no-charge public transportation, which will be almost completely funded by public expenditure.

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Telecommunications industry in Luxembourg is liberalized and the electronic communications networks are significantly developed.

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Luxembourg has modern and widely deployed optical fiber and cable networks throughout the country.

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Luxembourg is connected to all major European Internet Exchanges, datacenters and POPs through redundant optical networks.

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Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia.

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The vast majority of Luxembourg residents are able to speak it as a second or third language.

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Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognizes certain religions as officially mandated religions.

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Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbors.

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The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.

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Luxembourg was a founding participant of the Eurovision Song Contest, and participated every year between 1956 and 1993, with the exception of 1959.

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Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice.

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Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion.

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Unlike most countries in Europe, sports in Luxembourg are not concentrated upon a particular national sport, but instead encompass a number of sports, both team and individual.

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The Stade de Luxembourg, situated in Gasperich, southern Luxembourg City, is the country's national stadium and largest sports venue in the country with a capacity of 9, 386 for sporting events, including football and rugby union, and 15, 000 for concerts.

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Luxembourg cuisine reflects its position on the border between the Latin and Germanic worlds, being heavily influenced by the cuisines of neighboring France and Germany.

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Luxembourg has the second highest number of Michelin-starred restaurants per capita with Japan ranked at number one and Switzerland following Luxembourg at number three.

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Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations.

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Luxembourg won an Oscar in 2014 in the Animated Short Films category with Mr Hublot.

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