94 Facts About George Marshall


George Marshall rose through the United States Army to become Chief of Staff of the US Army under Presidents Franklin D Roosevelt and Harry S Truman, then served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman.

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George Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February 1902 and immediately went to the Philippines.

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George Marshall served in the United States and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War.

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George Marshall was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.

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In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department.

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George Marshall was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division; he assisted with the organization's mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France.

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George Marshall later served on the Army staff, was the executive officer of the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, and was an instructor at the Army War College.

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George Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938; he received promotion to brigadier general.

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In July 1938, George Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff; he later became the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff.

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When Chief of Staff Malin Craig retired in 1939, George Marshall assumed the role of Chief of Staff in an acting capacity before his appointment to the position, which he held until the war's end in 1945.

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George Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific until the end of the war.

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George Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, as required for holders of five-star rank.

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George Marshall died in 1959 and was buried with honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

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George Marshall was a first cousin, three times removed, of former Chief Justice John Marshall.

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Later, when asked about his political allegiances, George Marshall often joked that his father had been a Democrat and his mother a Republican, whereas he was an Episcopalian.

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George Marshall was educated at Miss Alcinda Thompson's private school in Uniontown and spent a year at Uniontown's Central School.

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At the start of his college career, George Marshall was subjected to a hazing incident in which upperclassmen positioned an unsheathed bayonet with the point up and directed him to squat over it.

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George Marshall attained the rank of first captain, the highest a cadet could achieve, and graduated 15th of 34 in the Class of 1901.

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George Marshall played offensive tackle on the football team and in 1900 he was selected for All-Southern honors.

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George Marshall took a competitive examination for a commission in the United States Army, which had greatly expanded to deal with the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War.

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George Marshall was schooled in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor.

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George Marshall was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army Staff College class.

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Shortly afterwards, George Marshall was assigned to help oversee the mobilization of the 1st Division for service in France.

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George Marshall was the first passenger from the first boat transporting American Expeditionary Force soldiers to set foot in Europe, and one of the first to enter the trenches of the Western Front.

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Sibert took Pershing's criticism in silence, but when Pershing turned his attention to the division chief of staff, George Marshall angrily interceded to inform Pershing of logistical and administrative difficulties of which Pershing was unaware.

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George Marshall informed Pershing that the AEF staff had not been very helpful in dealing with the problems.

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George Marshall ventured beyond the front lines and far into no-man's land, often under friendly artillery fire and routinely risking discovery and capture by Imperial German Army troops.

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In 1920, George Marshall was awarded the Citation Star for his heroism during this battle.

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In mid-1918, Pershing brought George Marshall on to the AEF operations staff, G-3, where he worked closely with Pershing and was a key planner of American operations.

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George Marshall was instrumental in the planning and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Empire on the Western Front in 1918.

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George Marshall held the permanent rank of captain and the temporary rank of colonel.

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George Marshall was recommended for promotion to temporary brigadier general in October 1918, but the Armistice occurred before the recommendation was acted on.

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Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, George Marshall worked on a number of projects that focused on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare.

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George Marshall taught at the Army War College and was a key planner in the War Department.

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George Marshall then served as executive officer of the 15th Infantry Regiment in the Republic of China, where he remained for three years and learned to speak basic Mandarin.

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From June 1932 to June 1933, George Marshall was the commanding officer of the 8th Infantry Regiment at Fort Screven, Georgia.

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George Marshall was senior instructor and chief of staff for the Illinois National Guard's 33rd Division from November 1933 to August 1936.

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George Marshall was promoted to general in 1936 and assigned to command the 5th Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington, from 1936 to 1938, and was promoted to brigadier general in October 1936.

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In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division in Washington, D C, and subsequently reassigned as Deputy Chief of Staff.

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George Marshall spoke in favor of a large ground army although Roosevelt had said a large air force would be a greater deterrent to enemies, pointing out that the United States Army did not yet have a single division at full operational strength.

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At the time of the appointment, George Marshall was only 34th in seniority, outranked by 21 major generals and 11 brigadier generals, but he was fifth under an unwritten rule that the chief of staff should be able to serve a four-year term before reaching the mandatory retirement age of 64.

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President Roosevelt favored Marshall because he was more supportive of New Deal liberalism than the conservative Douglas MacArthur, and because of the recommendations of Pershing, Craig, Louis A Johnson, and most importantly Roosevelt's close advisor Harry Hopkins.

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George Marshall met with Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr.

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In 1941, George Marshall became a Freemason, raised "at sight" by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia.

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Originally, George Marshall had planned a 265-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.

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The individual replacement system devised by George Marshall and implemented by McNair exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to new soldiers and officers.

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George Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe.

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George Marshall's push for unity of command, in particular through the Combined Chiefs of Staff and the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, was met with resistance from the British Armed Forces under Alan Brooke because the scheme would allow the United States to dominate the Western Allied war effort, but the British government ultimately approved.

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Some authors think that World War II could have ended earlier if George Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure.

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When rumors circulated that George Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, many critics viewed the potential transfer as a demotion, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on the Combined Chiefs of Staff.

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George Marshall was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day.

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George Marshall was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Churchill.

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George Marshall was succeeded as Army chief of staff by General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower.

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George Marshall advised President Roosevelt to move part of the United States Pacific Fleet to the Atlantic Ocean to assist Neutrality Patrols, and that the defenses at Oahu made a Japanese attack on the island impossible.

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George Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists.

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George Marshall became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe.

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George Marshall did not design the plans, and paid little attention to details or negotiations.

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George Marshall did not keep current on details of foreign affairs.

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George Marshall turned over major responsibilities to his deputies, especially Under-Secretary Robert A Lovett, and refused to be troubled by minutiae.

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George Marshall was again named "Man of the Year" by Time in January 1948.

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George Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared, a war would break out in the Middle East .

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George Marshall was severely exhausted throughout his tenure in the position.

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George Marshall received the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work, despite the criticism that he was a warrior not a pacifist.

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George Marshall was the first person to be granted such a waiver; in 2017, Jim Mattis became the second and in January 2021, General Lloyd Austin became the third.

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George Marshall worked to provide more manpower to meet the demands of both the Korean War and the Cold War in Europe.

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George Marshall worked to rebuild the relationship between the Defense and State Departments, as well as the relationship between the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

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George Marshall participated in the post-Inchon landing discussion that led to authorizing Douglas MacArthur to conduct the UN offensive into North Korea.

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When British Prime Minister Clement Attlee suggested diplomatic overtures to China, George Marshall opposed, arguing that it was impossible to negotiate with the Communist government.

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When some in Congress favored expanding the war in Korea and confronting China, George Marshall argued against a wider war in Korea, continuing instead to stress the importance of containing the Soviet Union during the Cold War battle for primacy in Europe.

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In September 1951, after 49 years of continuous public service, George Marshall retired to his home, Dodona Manor, in Leesburg, Virginia.

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George Marshall oversaw the construction of fourteen cemeteries in eight countries following World War II to memorialize those killed or missing in battle.

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George Marshall looked behind him to see who the arriving dignitary was, then realized the audience had stood for him.

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George Marshall was invited to the post-ceremony banquet at Buckingham Palace, and was the only non-royal seated at Queen Elizabeth's table.

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George Marshall's older brother Stuart Bradford Marshall was a graduate of the Virginia Military Institute, and became a manager and executive in several metal production corporations, including the American Manganese Manufacturing Company.

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George Marshall later worked as a metallurgist and consulting engineer specializing in the production and operation of blast furnaces, coke ovens, and foundries.

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George and Stuart Marshall were long estranged because George married Lily Coles, who a few years before had rejected Stuart's proposal.

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George Marshall met Lily after listening to her play the piano across the street from VMI.

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George Marshall, being immediately smitten, would "run the block, " or leave barracks after hours, to be with her.

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The second Mrs George Marshall was a graduate of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts; she later studied at the Comedie-Francaise, and toured with Frank Benson's English Shakespearean Company.

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George Marshall's authored a memoir in 1946, Together: Annals of an Army Wife.

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Molly Winn was active in preserving George Marshall's legacy, including preserving Dodona Manor and publishing George Marshall's World War I memoirs.

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George Marshall was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Section 7, Grave 8198, beside his first wife and her mother, Elizabeth Pendleton Coles .

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George Marshall viewed his world in definitive black and white with no vagueness in arguments or gray areas in decision-making.

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George Marshall is best known for giving his name and prestige to the George Marshall Plan to rebuild the European economy.

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George Marshall'storians agree that Truman depended heavily upon Marshall's prestige at a time of intensely bitter partisanship.

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Wilson Miscamble points to George Marshall's delayed recognition of the threat posed by the Soviet Union – not until April 1947 did he realize the dangers.

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George Marshall had a special gift for delegation and he drew forth impressive contributions from various capable subordinates.

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George Marshall counseled against it several times, and Pershing angrily indicated that his chief of staff Harbord and he intended to submit their proposal despite George Marshall's advice.

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In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the George Marshall Plan has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to European integration beginning with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and eventually the formation of the European Union.

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George Marshall was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore.

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The George Marshall Foundation oversees George Marshall's official papers and over two million other documents relating to the 20th century.

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Secretary of State George Marshall greeted by President Harry S Truman at Washington National Airport.

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Secretary of State George Marshall pointing out landmarks at Mount Vernon to Mexican President Miguel Aleman.

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George Marshall was returned to active duty upon leaving office in January 1949.

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