29 Facts About Churchill

1. In 1955, "arming to parley", Churchill authorized the manufacture of a British hydrogen bomb while still striving for a summit conference.

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2. In 1953, Churchill won a Nobel Prize, and it was in Literature, not Peace.

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3. In 1900, Churchill became a member of Parliament in the Conservative Party for Oldham, a town in Manchester.

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4. In 1908, Winston Churchill married Clementine Ogilvy Hozier after a short courtship.

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5. Churchill was a career politician, with biographer Robert Rhodes James describing him as a man "who was to devote himself for his entire adult life to the profession of politics".

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6. Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".

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7. Churchill was a prolific writer, often under the pen name "Winston S Churchill", with the American novelist of the same name to avoid confusion between their works.

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8. Churchill was an accomplished amateur artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.

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9. Churchill was annoyed about friction between Eden and Dulles.

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10. In June 1950, Churchill was strongly critical of the Attlee Government's failure to send British representatives to Paris to discuss the Schuman Plan for setting up the European Coal and Steel Community.

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11. Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries.

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12. At this time, Churchill publicly gave his support to the King.

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13. In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives to see Baldwin, Inskip and Halifax.

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14. On 22 May 1936, Churchill was present at a meeting of Old Guard Conservatives at Lord Winterton's house at Shillinglee Park, to push for greater rearmament.

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15. In 1931, Churchill said: "It is not in the immediate interest of European peace that the French Army should be seriously weakened.

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16. Churchill was returned at Epping against a Liberal and with the support of the Unionists.

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17. In 1923, Churchill acted as a paid consultant for Burmah Oil to lobby the British government to allow Burmah exclusive rights to Persian (Iranian) oil resources; these rights were ultimately granted.

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18. On 4 May 1923, Churchill spoke in favour of the French occupation of the Ruhr, which was extremely unpopular in Britain saying: "We must not allow any particular phrase of French policy to estrange us from the great French nation.

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19. In July 1921, Churchill argued at the Imperial conference of Dominion prime ministers that despite the rejection by the United States Senate of the alliance with France that Britain should still sign a military alliance with France to guarantee post-war security.

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20. In 1919, Churchill sanctioned the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq.

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21. Churchill was instrumental in having para-military forces intervene in the Irish War of Independence.

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22. Churchill was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that "there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years".

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23. In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air.

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24. In February 1910, Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary, giving him control over the police and prison services, and he implemented a prison reform programme.

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25. In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his maiden speech gained widespread press coverage.

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26. Churchill was selected as one of the two Conservative parliamentary candidates at the June 1899 by-election in Oldham, Lancashire.

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27. Churchill was critical of Kitchener's actions during the war, particularly the latter's unmerciful treatment of enemy wounded and his desecration of Muhammad Ahmad's tomb in Omdurman.

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28. In February 1895, Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars regiment of the British Army, based at Aldershot.

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29. Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power.

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