William Averell Harriman, better known as Averell Harriman, was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,800|
William Averell Harriman, better known as Averell Harriman, was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,800|
Averell Harriman was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952 and 1956, as well as a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men".
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,801|
Averell Harriman served as Secretary of Commerce, and coordinated the implementation of the Marshall Plan.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,803|
Averell Harriman served a single term before his defeat by Nelson Rockefeller in the 1958 election.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,805|
Young Averell Harriman would have his first introduction to Russia, a nation on which he would spend much attention in his later life in public service.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,810|
Averell Harriman served as Chairman of The Business Council, then known as the Business Advisory Council for the United States Department of Commerce, in 1937 and 1939.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,812|
Harriman's older sister, Mary Rumsey, encouraged Averell to leave his finance job and work with her and their friends, the Roosevelts, to advance the goals of the New Deal.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,813|
Averell Harriman joined the NRA National Recovery Administration, an effort to cartelise the American economy via a Corporate State model, marking the beginning of his political career.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,814|
Averell Harriman raced in partnership with Walker under the name Log Cabin Stable before buying him out.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,815|
Averell Harriman, who owned vast coal reserves in Poland, was handsomely compensated for them through an agreement between the American and Polish governments.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,817|
Averell Harriman pointed out that the defeat of the Soviet Union would free up three million men of the Wehrmacht for operations elsewhere, allowing Hitler to shift money and resources from his army to his navy and potentially increasing the threat to the United States.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,820|
Averell Harriman told Roosevelt that if Operation Barbarossa was successful in 1941, Hitler would almost certainly defeat Britain in 1942.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,821|
Averell Harriman hoped that, with our support, the Red Army would be able to keep the Axis forces engaged.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,822|
On June 24,1943, Averell Harriman met with Churchill to tell him that Roosevelt did not want him to attend the up-coming summit meeting with Stalin, saying that it was important to allow Roosevelt who had never met Stalin to establish an "intimate understanding", which would be "impossible" if Churchill was there.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,825|
Averell Harriman was reluctant to part with his mistress, Pamela Churchill, the wife of Randolph Churchill.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,827|
At a three power conference in Moscow that took place between October 19 and 30,1943, Averell Harriman played a major role in representing the United States as part of the American delegation headed by Secretary of State Cordell Hull while the Soviet delegation was headed by the Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov and the British delegation headed by the Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,828|
Averell Harriman felt that this was a mistake, as he regarded Roosevelt's statement that the Polish government had to accept the loss of some of its territory as virtually agreeing to allow the Soviets to impose any government they wanted on Poland because it was unlikely that the Polish government-in-exile would agree with the annexation.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,831|
Since all of the available evidence suggested that the Soviets had in fact committed the Katyn Forest massacre in April 1940, Averell Harriman later stated that he tried to avoid the subject, telling a Senate hearing "No, I do not recall the subject came up".
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,832|
In connection with this, Averell Harriman met Stalin on June 10,1944, to get from him a rather generalized statement declaring his support for Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek as China's only leader and a promise that he would use his influence with Mao Zedong to pressure him to recognize Chiang.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,833|
The American delegation at the Yalta conference stayed at the luxurious Livadia Palace overlooking the Black Sea, and Averell Harriman was given a room of his own to stay, a sign of presidential favor as most of the American delegation had to sleep five men to a room owing to a surplus of delegates and a lack of space in the Livadia Palace.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,835|
Averell Harriman objected, stating that Roosevelt wanted the ports on the Liaotung peninsula to be internationalized, not leased by the Soviet Union and for the Manchurian railroads to be run jointly by a Sino-Soviet commission instead of being owned by the Soviet Union.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,836|
On February 11,1945, the conference ended and the following day Averell Harriman saw Roosevelt, his friend since childhood, for the last time, as he boarded a C-54 airplane at Saki airfield to take him to Egypt.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,838|
Averell Harriman served as ambassador to the Soviet Union until January 1946.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,840|
Kennan's analysis, which generally accorded with Averell Harriman's, became the cornerstone of Truman's Cold War strategy of containment.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,841|
Averell Harriman served as governor for one term until Republican Nelson Rockefeller unseated him in 1958.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,844|
Averell Harriman was a candidate for the Democratic Presidential Nomination in 1952, and again in 1956 when he was endorsed by Truman but lost to Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,845|
Under Truman's influence, Averell Harriman had been slow to endorse Kennedy, only doing so after it became clear that Kennedy was going to win the Democratic nomination.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,846|
However, after a luncheon, where Averell Harriman recalled his service with Roosevelt and Truman, the elder Kennedy decided that Averell Harriman's knowledge and experience might serve his administration well.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,847|
At the time, there was a civil war in Laos between the Communist Pathet Lao and the anti-Communist Special Forces, and Averell Harriman concluded based on his talks in New Delhi that the best outcome would be neutrality for Laos and that Souvanna Phouma was not a Communist dupe as the CIA claimed.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,849|
Averell Harriman relished his job as a diplomatic trouble-shooter who was accustomed to working on his own and embraced the assignment, through he complained that he was not dressed for the tropics as he rushed off to Laos.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,851|
Averell Harriman felt at 126 strong that the American delegation was too large, and believed that too much time would be wasted in meetings.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,853|
Averell Harriman appointed William Sullivan as his deputy and ordered him to reduce the size of the delegation.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,854|
An infuriated Averell Harriman responded that in World War II Roosevelt had let him meet anyone whom it was necessary for him to meet, and charged that Rusk was too rigid to serve as secretary of state.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,855|
Chinese delegation accused the United States of supporting Phoumi, leading Averell Harriman to accuse the Chinese of supporting the Pathet Lao.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,856|
Averell Harriman favored the neutralist Prince Souvanna Phouma as the next leader of Laos and urged Kennedy to drop American support for right-wing Prince Phoumi Nosavan.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,857|
Averell Harriman knew that Rusk would not grant permission, so he instead phoned Kennedy and obtained his permission.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,859|
At the meeting with Khiem, Averell Harriman began by remembering Roosevelt's support for Vietnamese independence, saying that if Roosevelt had not died in 1945, America would have pressured the French to grant independence to Vietnam after the war.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,860|
Averell Harriman became rather enthusiastic about the appellation, and therefore had his desk decorated with miniature silver, bass and crystal crocodiles.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,866|
Averell Harriman's image was that of a crusty and autocratic elder statesman whose brusqueness and bad temper were legendary in Washington, but whose counsel was greatly valued by Kennedy who appreciated him for his sound judgement on international affairs.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,867|
In December 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn defected from the Soviet Union and accused Averell Harriman of being a Soviet spy, but his claims were dismissed by the CIA and Averell Harriman remained in his position until April 1963, when he became Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,869|
Averell Harriman retained that position during the transition to the Johnson administration until March 1965 when he again became Ambassador at Large.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,870|
Averell Harriman held that position for the remainder of Johnson's presidency.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,871|
Averell Harriman argued that before the pagoda raids, it was impossible to know the true state of South Vietnamese public opinion, but the massive demonstrations with millions protesting in the streets showed the Diem regime was deeply unpopular.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,873|
Averell Harriman did not attend the second meeting, which weakened the case for a coup.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,874|
At the third meeting, Averell Harriman made a vigorous case for a coup and insulted nearly everyone who was opposed to the coup.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,875|
Averell Harriman told Taylor to his face that he had been wrong on every issue since World War II and was wrong on this issue.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,876|
Finally, Averell Harriman's rudeness got to such a point that Kennedy asked him to please be civil to others in the room or leave.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,877|
The meeting ended with Kennedy seemingly come around to supporting a coup as Averell Harriman argued that if South Vietnam would be lost to Communism if the Ngo brothers stayed.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,878|
Averell Harriman, who was more polite at this meeting, told Kennedy: "Mr President, I was very puzzled by the cable from General Harkins until I read the outgoing from General Taylor".
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,879|
Averell Harriman certainly supported the coup against the South Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,880|
Averell Harriman followed the orders of Harriman and Forrestal rather than the CIA.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,881|
Averell Harriman took the criticism of his country personally and launched a lengthy denunciation of North Vietnam.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,884|
Averell Harriman insisted on going back to the subject of Soviet support for North Vietnam, Kosygin snapped in fury saying that the regime in Saigon was so corrupt that the Soviet Union could buy their allegiance tomorrow if it wanted, and accused the United States of supporting a hopelessly corrupt government.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,886|
Averell Harriman had Cooper draft a letter to Johnson protesting the failure of Operation Sunflower.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,888|
In June 1967, Averell Harriman became involved in another attempt at peace code-named Operation Pennsylvania.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,889|
However, Averell Harriman had been a close adviser to Johnson's hero, Roosevelt, and Johnson wanted the advice of a man who once counselled Roosevelt in World War II.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,891|
At the crucial meeting of the "Wise Men" group in March 1968 as Johnson considered escalating the war, Averell Harriman ignored Johnson's orders not to attend as he instead arrived in the dining room and ordered a steward to set up a table.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,893|
Averell Harriman wanted the talks to be held in Warsaw, but Rostow persuaded Johnson to reject that city.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,894|
Averell Harriman, who found Rusk overtly bureaucratic and cautious, complained bitterly that in World War II, Roosevelt had allowed him to do practically anything he liked when representing the United States.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,895|
Once in Paris, Averell Harriman quickly learned that the nominal head of the North Vietnamese delegation, Xuan Thuy, had no power, and the real leader of the North Vietnamese delegation was Le Ðuc Tho, a member of the Politburo.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,896|
The next day, an irate Averell Harriman called the French foreign minister, Maurice Couve de Murville, to tell him: "You get those damned goons away".
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,898|
Averell Harriman warned that if French intelligence continued to shadow him and the rest of the American delegation, he would call a press conference to say it was impossible to negotiate in Paris owing to the activities of French spies and he would go home.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,899|
In July 1968, Averell Harriman reported to Johnson that a lull in fighting indicted the North Vietnamese were serious about negotiating peace, but Rusk in a press conference stated that he believed the lull proved the North Vietnamese were negotiating in bad faith and he believed that the North Vietnamese were about to launch another offensive.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,900|
On September 8,1968, Averell Harriman finally met Tho in a villa in the town of Vitry-sur-Seine.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,902|
Averell Harriman thanked Tho for his "straight talk", but said that Johnson would want certain concessions before stopping the bombing.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,903|
Tho later recalled that Averell Harriman looked relieved when he made the offer to accept South Vietnam to join the peace talks.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,906|
Unknown to Averell Harriman, Thieu was being encouraged to be obstructionist by the Nixon campaign.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,908|
Averell Harriman wanted the four-party talks to begin already two or three days after the bombing would have stopped, but Xuan wanted a longer interval to prove to the North Vietnamese people that it had indeed ended.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,909|
Averell Harriman sent Johnson a telegram suggesting the Americans accept the North Vietnamese terms.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,910|
On January 14,1969, Averell Harriman met with Tho, saying as of January 20 he was to be replaced with Nixon's nominee, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,911|
Tho expressed regret at Averell Harriman leaving Paris, saying: "If you had stopped bombing after two or three months of talks, the situation would have been different now".
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,912|
Tho thought that Averell Harriman seemed very melancholic as he desperately wanted to clinch a peace deal to end the Vietnam War, an honor that he now knew would be denied to him.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,913|
Averell Harriman received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Distinction, in 1969 and West Point's Sylvanus Thayer Award in 1975.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,915|
Averell Harriman was appointed senior member of the US Delegation to the United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on Disarmament in 1978.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,916|
About a year after his divorce from Lawrence, Averell Harriman married Marie Norton Whitney, who had left her husband, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, to marry him.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,918|
Averell Harriman died on July 26,1986, in Yorktown Heights, New York, at the age of 94.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,919|
Averell and Pamela Harriman are buried at the Arden Farm Graveyard in Arden, New York.
|FactSnippet No. 2,316,920|