221 Facts About President Theodore Roosevelt


President Theodore Roosevelt previously served as the 25th vice president under President William McKinley from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900.

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President Theodore Roosevelt integrated his exuberant personality and a vast range of interests and achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was home-schooled and began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard.

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President Theodore Roosevelt recuperated by buying and operating a cattle ranch in the Dakotas.

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President Theodore Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley and, in 1898, helped plan the highly successful naval war against Spain.

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President Theodore Roosevelt resigned to help form and lead the Rough Riders, a unit that fought the Spanish army in Cuba to great publicity.

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President Theodore Roosevelt campaigned vigorously and the McKinley–President Theodore Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of victory, peace, and prosperity.

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President Theodore Roosevelt assumed the presidency at age 42 after McKinley was assassinated in September 1901.

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President Theodore Roosevelt remains the youngest person to become president of the United States.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was a leader of the progressive movement and championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs.

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President Theodore Roosevelt prioritized conservation and established national parks, forests, and monuments to preserve the nation's natural resources.

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President Theodore Roosevelt expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project American naval power.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was elected to a full term in 1904 and continued to promote progressive policies.

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President Theodore Roosevelt groomed his close friend William Howard Taft to succeed him in the 1908 presidential election.

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President Theodore Roosevelt failed, walked out, and founded the Progressive Party.

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President Theodore Roosevelt ran in the 1912 presidential election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had an older sister, a younger brother and a younger sister.

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Elliott was later the father of Eleanor Roosevelt who married Theodore's distant cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's youth was largely shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma.

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President Theodore Roosevelt repeatedly experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's father was a prominent leader in New York's cultural affairs; he helped to found the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and had been especially active in mobilizing support for the Union during the American Civil War, even though his in-laws included Confederate leaders.

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President Theodore Roosevelt combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had discovered the significant benefits of physical exertion to minimize his asthma and bolster his spirits.

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President Theodore Roosevelt did well in science, philosophy, and rhetoric courses but continued to struggle in Latin and Greek.

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President Theodore Roosevelt studied biology intently and was already an accomplished naturalist and a published ornithologist.

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President Theodore Roosevelt read prodigiously with an almost photographic memory.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi literary society, the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and the prestigious Porcellian Club; he was an editor of The Harvard Advocate.

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President Theodore Roosevelt, attempting to analyze his college career and weigh the benefits he had received, felt that he had obtained little from Harvard.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had been depressed by the formalistic treatment of many subjects, by the rigidity, the attention to minutiae that were important in themselves, but which somehow were never linked up with the whole.

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President Theodore Roosevelt gave up his earlier plan of studying natural science and decided to attend Columbia Law School instead, moving back into his family's home in New York City.

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President Theodore Roosevelt spent much of his time writing a book on the War of 1812.

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President Theodore Roosevelt found allies in the local Republican Party and defeated an incumbent Republican state assemblyman tied to the political machine of Senator Roscoe Conkling closely.

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President Theodore Roosevelt paid very close attention to Mahan's emphasis that only a nation with the world's most powerful fleet could dominate the world's oceans, exert its diplomacy to the fullest, and defend its own borders.

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President Theodore Roosevelt incorporated Mahan's ideas into his views on naval strategy for the remainder of his career.

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Distraught, President Theodore Roosevelt left baby Alice in the care of his sister Bamie while he grieved; he assumed custody of Alice when she was three.

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President Theodore Roosevelt began making his mark immediately and in handling in corporate corruption issues specifically.

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President Theodore Roosevelt blocked a corrupt effort of financier Jay Gould to lower his taxes.

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President Theodore Roosevelt allied with Governor Cleveland to win passage of a civil service reform bill.

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President Theodore Roosevelt won re-election a second time and sought the office of Speaker of the New York State Assembly, but Titus Sheard obtained the position in a 41 to 29 vote of the GOP caucus instead.

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President Theodore Roosevelt fought for and succeeded in influencing the Manhattan delegates at the state convention in Utica.

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President Theodore Roosevelt then took control of the state convention, bargaining through the night and outmaneuvering the supporters of Arthur and James G Blaine; consequently, he gained a national reputation as a key politician in his state.

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President Theodore Roosevelt fought alongside the Mugwump reformers; however, Blaine, having gained support from Arthur's and Edmunds's delegates, won the nomination by 541 votes on the fourth ballot.

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President Theodore Roosevelt refused to join other Mugwumps in supporting Grover Cleveland, the governor of New York and the Democratic nominee in the general election.

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President Theodore Roosevelt debated the pros and cons of staying loyal with his political friend, Henry Cabot Lodge.

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President Theodore Roosevelt distanced himself from the promise, saying that it had not been meant "for publication".

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President Theodore Roosevelt first visited the Dakota Territory in 1883 to hunt bison.

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Exhilarated by the western lifestyle and with the cattle business booming in the territory, President Theodore Roosevelt invested $14,000 in hopes of becoming a prosperous cattle rancher.

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President Theodore Roosevelt learned to ride western style, rope, and hunt on the banks of the Little Missouri.

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President Theodore Roosevelt reoriented and began writing about frontier life for national magazines; he published three books: Hunting Trips of a Ranchman, Ranch Life and the Hunting-Trail, and The Wilderness Hunter.

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President Theodore Roosevelt brought his desire to address the common interests of American citizens to the West.

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President Theodore Roosevelt successfully led efforts to organize ranchers there to address the problems of overgrazing and other shared concerns, which resulted in the formation of the Little Missouri Stockmen's Association.

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President Theodore Roosevelt felt compelled to promote conservation and was able to form the Boone and Crockett Club, whose primary goal was the conservation of large game animals and their habitats.

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President Theodore Roosevelt felt deeply troubled that his second marriage had taken place very quickly after the death of his first wife and he faced resistance from his sisters.

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The couple had five children: President Theodore Roosevelt "Ted" III in 1887, Kermit in 1889, Ethel in 1891, Archibald in 1894, and Quentin in 1897.

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President Theodore Roosevelt accepted the nomination despite having little hope of winning the race against United Labor Party candidate Henry George and Democratic candidate Abram Hewitt.

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President Theodore Roosevelt frequently clashed with Postmaster General John Wanamaker, who handed out numerous patronage positions to Harrison supporters, and President Theodore Roosevelt's attempt to force out several postal workers damaged Harrison politically.

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In 1894, a group of reform Republicans approached President Theodore Roosevelt about running for Mayor of New York again; he declined, mostly due to his wife's resistance to being removed from the Washington social set.

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President Theodore Roosevelt retreated to the Dakotas for a time; his wife Edith regretted her role in the decision and vowed that there would be no repeat of it.

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President Theodore Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms and annual physical exams, appointed recruits based on their physical and mental qualifications rather than political affiliation, established Meritorious Service Medals, and closed corrupt police hostelries.

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In 1894, President Theodore Roosevelt met Jacob Riis, the muckraking Evening Sun newspaper journalist who was opening the eyes of New Yorkers to the terrible conditions of the city's millions of poor immigrants with such books as How the Other Half Lives.

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President Theodore Roosevelt made a habit of walking officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure that they were on duty.

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President Theodore Roosevelt made a concerted effort to uniformly enforce New York's Sunday closing law; in this, he ran up against boss Tom Platt as well as Tammany Hall—he was notified that the Police Commission was being legislated out of existence.

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President Theodore Roosevelt opposed Bryan's free silver platform, viewing many of Bryan's followers as dangerous fanatics, and President Theodore Roosevelt gave campaign speeches for McKinley.

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President Theodore Roosevelt began pressing his national security views regarding the Pacific and the Caribbean on McKinley, and was particularly adamant that Spain be ejected from Cuba.

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President Theodore Roosevelt explained his priorities to one of the Navy's planners in late 1897:.

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George Dewey, who had received an appointment to lead the Asiatic Squadron with the backing of President Theodore Roosevelt, later credited his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay to President Theodore Roosevelt's orders.

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Regiment trained for several weeks in San Antonio, Texas, and in his autobiography, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote that his prior experience with the New York National Guard had been invaluable, in that it enabled him to immediately begin teaching his men basic soldiering skills.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was promoted to colonel and took command of the regiment when Wood was put in command of the brigade.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had the only horse, and rode back and forth between rifle pits at the forefront of the advance up Kettle Hill, an advance that he urged despite the absence of any orders from superiors.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill because his horse had been entangled in barbed wire.

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President Theodore Roosevelt always recalled the Battle of Kettle Hill as "the great day of my life" and "my crowded hour".

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In 2001, President Theodore Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions; he had been nominated during the war, but Army officials, annoyed at his grabbing the headlines, blocked it.

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However, Platt needed a strong candidate due to the unpopularity of the incumbent Republican governor, Frank S Black, and Roosevelt agreed to become the nominee and to try not to "make war" with the Republican establishment once in office.

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President Theodore Roosevelt campaigned vigorously on his war record, winning the election by a margin of just one percent.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was exposed to the problems of trusts, monopolies, labor relations, and conservation.

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Chessman argues that President Theodore Roosevelt's program "rested firmly upon the concept of the square deal by a neutral state".

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President Theodore Roosevelt successfully pushed the Ford Franchise-Tax bill, which taxed public franchises granted by the state and controlled by corporations, declaring that "a corporation which derives its powers from the State, should pay to the State a just percentage of its earnings as a return for the privileges it enjoys".

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President Theodore Roosevelt rejected "boss" Thomas C Platt's worries that this approached Bryanite Socialism, explaining that without it, New York voters might get angry and adopt public ownership of streetcar lines and other franchises.

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Platt insisted that he be consulted on major appointments; President Theodore Roosevelt appeared to comply, but then made his own decisions.

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Historians marvel that President Theodore Roosevelt managed to appoint so many first-rate men with Platt's approval.

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President Theodore Roosevelt even enlisted Platt's help in securing reform, such as in the spring of 1899, when Platt pressured state senators to vote for a civil service bill that the secretary of the Civil Service Reform Association called "superior to any civil service statute heretofore secured in America".

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Wallace Chessman argues that as governor, President Theodore Roosevelt developed the principles that shaped his presidency, especially insistence upon the public responsibility of large corporations, publicity as a first remedy for trusts, regulation of railroad rates, mediation of the conflict of capital and labor, conservation of natural resources and protection of the less fortunate members of society.

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President Theodore Roosevelt sought to position himself against the excesses of large corporations on the one hand and radical movements on the other.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had no interest in challenging McKinley for the Republican nomination in 1900, and was denied his preferred post of Secretary of War.

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Roosevelt attended the 1900 Republican National Convention as a state delegate and struck a bargain with Platt: Roosevelt would accept the nomination for vice president if the convention offered it to him, but would otherwise serve another term as governor.

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President Theodore Roosevelt denounced the radicalism of Bryan, contrasting it with the heroism of the soldiers and sailors who fought and won the war against Spain.

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President Theodore Roosevelt countered that it was best for the Filipinos to have stability and the Americans to have a proud place in the world.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had no power; he presided over the Senate for a mere four days before it adjourned.

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On September 6,1901, President Theodore Roosevelt McKinley was attending the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York when he was shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was vacationing in Isle La Motte, Vermont, and traveled to Buffalo to visit McKinley in the hospital.

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President Theodore Roosevelt assured party leaders that he intended to adhere to McKinley's policies, and he retained McKinley's Cabinet.

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Nonetheless, Roosevelt sought to position himself as the party's undisputed leader, seeking to bolster the role of the president and position himself for the 1904 election.

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Shortly after taking office, Roosevelt invited Booker T Washington to dinner at the White House.

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President Theodore Roosevelt reacted with astonishment and protest, saying that he looked forward to many future dinners with Washington.

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President Theodore Roosevelt viewed big business as a necessary part of the American economy, and sought only to prosecute the "bad trusts" that restrained trade and charged unfair prices.

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President Theodore Roosevelt brought 44 antitrust suits, breaking up the Northern Securities Company, the largest railroad monopoly; and regulating Standard Oil, the largest oil company.

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President Theodore Roosevelt successfully appealed to the public to pressure Congress, and Congress overwhelmingly voted to pass President Theodore Roosevelt's version of the bill.

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President Theodore Roosevelt even ordered changes made in the minting of a coin whose design he disliked, and ordered the Government Printing Office to adopt simplified spellings for a core list of 300 words, according to reformers on the Simplified Spelling Board.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was forced to rescind the latter after substantial ridicule from the press and a resolution of protest from the US House of Representatives.

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President Theodore Roosevelt investigated and prosecuted corrupt Indian agents who had cheated the Creeks and various Native American tribes out of land parcels.

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Historians generally agree that President Theodore Roosevelt moved "quickly and decisively" to prosecute misconduct in his administration.

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President Theodore Roosevelt worked with the Democratic Senator Benjamin Tillman to pass the bill.

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President Theodore Roosevelt responded to public anger over the abuses in the food packing industry by pushing Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

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President Theodore Roosevelt worked closely with Interior Secretary James Rudolph Garfield and Chief of the United States Forest Service Gifford Pinchot to enact a series of conservation programs that often met with resistance from Western members of Congress, such as Charles William Fulton.

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Nonetheless, President Theodore Roosevelt established the United States Forest Service, signed into law the creation of five National Parks, and signed the 1906 Antiquities Act, under which he proclaimed 18 new US National Monuments.

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President Theodore Roosevelt established the first 51 bird reserves, four game preserves, and 150 National Forests.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was unapologetic about his extensive use of executive orders to protect the environment, despite the perception in Congress that he was encroaching on too many lands.

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In total, President Theodore Roosevelt used executive orders to establish 121 forest reserves in 31 states.

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In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt faced the greatest domestic economic crisis since the Panic of 1893.

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President Theodore Roosevelt helped calm the crisis by meeting on November 4,1907, with the leaders of US Steel and approving their plan to purchase a Tennessee steel company near bankruptcy—its failure would ruin a major new York bank.

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President Theodore Roosevelt thus approved the growth of one of the largest and most hated trusts, while the public announcement calmed the markets.

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President Theodore Roosevelt admired the martial courage of the Japanese, and distrusted the reckless German Kaiser Wilhelm II.

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President Theodore Roosevelt searched for ways to win recognition for the position abroad.

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President Theodore Roosevelt played a major role in mediating the First Moroccan Crisis by calling the Algeciras Conference, which averted war between France and Germany.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's presidency saw the strengthening of ties with Great Britain.

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President Theodore Roosevelt increased the size of the navy, and by the end of his second term the United States had more battleships than any other country besides Britain.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was particularly concerned with the motives of German Emperor Wilhelm II.

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President Theodore Roosevelt succeeded in getting the three nations to agree to arbitration by tribunal at The Hague, and successfully defused the crisis.

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President Theodore Roosevelt convinced Congress to approve the Panamanian alternative, and a treaty was approved, only to be rejected by the Colombian government.

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President Theodore Roosevelt denied charges of corruption concerning the canal in a January 8,1906, message to Congress.

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In 1906, following a disputed election, an insurrection ensued in Cuba; President Theodore Roosevelt sent Taft, the Secretary of War, to monitor the situation; he was convinced that he had the authority to unilaterally authorize Taft to deploy Marines if necessary, without congressional approval.

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President Theodore Roosevelt normally enjoyed very close relationships with the press, which he used to keep in daily contact with his middle-class base.

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President Theodore Roosevelt loved talking with intellectuals, authors, and writers.

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President Theodore Roosevelt himself was not usually a target, but a speech of his from 1906 coined the term "muckraker" for unscrupulous journalists making wild charges.

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Hanna and Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay both died in early 1904, and with the waning of Thomas Platt's power, President Theodore Roosevelt faced little effective opposition for the 1904 nomination.

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The President secured his own nomination, but his preferred vice-presidential running mate, Robert R Hitt, was not nominated.

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President Theodore Roosevelt attempted to manage the press's release of White House statements by forming the Ananias Club.

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President Theodore Roosevelt denied corruption while at the same time he ordered Cortelyou to return $100,000 of a campaign contribution from Standard Oil.

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Parker said that President Theodore Roosevelt was accepting corporate donations to keep damaging information from the Bureau of Corporations from going public.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's influence waned as he approached the end of his second term, as his promise to forego a third term made him a lame duck and his concentration of power provoked a backlash from many Congressmen.

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President Theodore Roosevelt wanted an employee liability law for industrial injuries and an eight-hour work day for federal employees.

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President Theodore Roosevelt said Roosevelt overruled his Secretary of the Interior Ethan A Hitchcock and granted a pipeline franchise to run through the Osage lands to the Prairie Oil and Gas Company.

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President Theodore Roosevelt branded Haskell's allegation as "a lie, pure and simple" and obtained a denial from Treasury Secretary Shaw that President Theodore Roosevelt had neither coerced Shaw nor overruled him.

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President Theodore Roosevelt ultimately decided to stick to his 1904 pledge not to run for a third term.

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President Theodore Roosevelt personally favored Secretary of State Elihu Root as his successor, but Root's ill health made him an unsuitable candidate.

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Taft usually proved to be a less adroit politician than President Theodore Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, along with the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made President Theodore Roosevelt so formidable.

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When President Theodore Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk creating severe tensions inside the Republican Party by pitting producers against merchants and consumers, he stopped talking about the issue.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa, East Africa and traveled to the Belgian Congo before following the Nile River to Khartoum in modern Sudan.

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President Theodore Roosevelt wrote a detailed account of the safari in the book African Game Trails, recounting the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science.

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President Theodore Roosevelt refused a meeting with the Pope due to a dispute over a group of Methodists active in Rome.

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President Theodore Roosevelt met with Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, King George V of Great Britain, and other European leaders.

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In Oslo, Norway, President Theodore Roosevelt delivered a speech calling for limitations on naval armaments, a strengthening of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the creation of a "League of Peace" among the world powers.

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President Theodore Roosevelt delivered the Romanes Lecture at Oxford, in which he denounced those who sought parallels between the evolution of animal life and the development of society.

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In October 1910, Roosevelt became the first US president to fly in an airplane, staying aloft for four minutes in a Wright Brothers-designed craft near St Louis.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had attempted to refashion Taft into a copy of himself, but he recoiled as Taft began to display his individuality.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was offended on election night when Taft indicated that his success had been possible not just through the efforts of Roosevelt, but his brother Charley.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was further alienated when Taft, intent on becoming his own man, did not consult him about cabinet appointments.

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President Theodore Roosevelt urged progressives to take control of the Republican Party at the state and local level and to avoid splitting the party in a way that would hand the presidency to the Democrats in 1912.

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President Theodore Roosevelt called for a ban on corporate political contributions.

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President Theodore Roosevelt campaigned for the Republicans in the 1910 elections, in which the Democrats gained control of the House for the first time since 1892.

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Between January and April 1911, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote a series of articles for The Outlook, defending what he called "the great movement of our day, the progressive nationalist movement against special privilege, and in favor of an honest and efficient political and industrial democracy".

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President Theodore Roosevelt continually criticized Taft after the 1910 elections, and the break between the two men became final after the Justice Department filed an antitrust lawsuit against US Steel in September 1911; President Theodore Roosevelt was humiliated by this suit because he had personally approved of an acquisition that the Justice Department was now challenging.

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However, President Theodore Roosevelt was still unwilling to run against Taft in 1912; he instead hoped to run in 1916 against whichever Democrat beat Taft in 1912.

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However, an opposing faction of progressives, led by President Theodore Roosevelt, ridiculed arbitration as foolhardy idealism, and insisted on the realism of warfare as the only solution to serious international disputes.

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President Theodore Roosevelt worked with his close friend Senator Henry Cabot Lodge to impose those amendments that ruined the goals of the treaties.

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At a deeper level, President Theodore Roosevelt truly believed that arbitration was a naive solution and the great issues had to be decided by warfare.

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President Theodore Roosevelt conspicuously declined to make a statement—requested by Garfield—that he would flatly refuse a nomination.

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Later that year, President Theodore Roosevelt spoke before the Constitutional Convention in Ohio, openly identifying as a progressive and endorsing progressive reforms—even endorsing popular review of state judicial decisions.

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Meanwhile, President Theodore Roosevelt won in Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, California, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's train went 1800 miles back and forth in the one state, where he made 75 speeches.

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President Theodore Roosevelt swept the state, convincing President Theodore Roosevelt that he should intensify his campaigning, and letting Taft know he should work from the White House not the stump.

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Once his defeat at the Republican convention appeared probable, President Theodore Roosevelt announced that he would "accept the progressive nomination on a progressive platform and I shall fight to the end, win or lose".

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President Theodore Roosevelt reassured him in 1912 that of course he had to endorse Taft.

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President Theodore Roosevelt handled the new party's finances efficiently, but was deeply distrusted by many reformers.

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Out of 1100 counties in the South, President Theodore Roosevelt won two counties in Alabama, one in Arkansas, seven in North Carolina, three in Georgia, 17 in Tennessee, two in Texas, one in Virginia, and none in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, or South Carolina.

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On October 14,1912, while arriving at a campaign event in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Roosevelt was shot from seven feet away in front of the Gilpatrick Hotel by a delusional saloonkeeper named John Flammang Schrank, who believed that the ghost of assassinated president William McKinley had directed him to kill Roosevelt.

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President Theodore Roosevelt assured the crowd he was all right, then ordered police to take charge of Schrank and to make sure no violence was done to him.

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President Theodore Roosevelt declined suggestions to go to the hospital immediately and instead delivered a 90 minute speech with blood seeping into his shirt.

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Doctors concluded that it would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to attempt to remove it, and President Theodore Roosevelt carried the bullet with him for the rest of his life.

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President Theodore Roosevelt spent two weeks recuperating before returning to the campaign trail.

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President Theodore Roosevelt still campaigned vigorously, and the election developed into a two-person contest despite Taft's quiet presence in the race.

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President Theodore Roosevelt respected Wilson, but the two differed on various issues; Wilson opposed any federal intervention regarding women's suffrage or child labor, and attacked President Theodore Roosevelt's tolerance of large businesses.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's crew consisted of his son Kermit, Colonel Rondon, naturalist George Kruck Cherrie, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lira, team physician Dr Jose Antonio Cajazeira, and 16 skilled paddlers and porters.

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President Theodore Roosevelt identified Leo Miller, Anthony Fiala, Frank Harper, and Jacob Sigg as crew members.

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President Theodore Roosevelt wrote, perhaps prophetically, to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years.

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President Theodore Roosevelt made several campaign appearances for the Progressives, but the 1914 elections were a disaster for the fledgling third party.

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Roosevelt angrily denounced the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it a failure regarding the atrocities in Belgium and the violations of American rights.

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In 1916, while campaigning for Hughes, President Theodore Roosevelt repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans whom he described as unpatriotic, saying they put the interests of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's by supporting neutrality.

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However, President Wilson announced to the press that he would not send Roosevelt and his volunteers to France, but instead would send an American Expeditionary Force under the command of General John J Pershing.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was an early supporter of the modern view that there needs to be a global order.

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When World War I broke out, President Theodore Roosevelt proposed "a World League for the Peace of Righteousness", in September 1914, which would preserve sovereignty but limit armaments and require arbitration.

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President Theodore Roosevelt denounced Wilson's approach but died before it was adopted at Paris.

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President Theodore Roosevelt declined a request from New York Republicans to run for another gubernatorial term, but attacked Wilson's Fourteen Points, calling instead for the unconditional surrender of Germany.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was hospitalized for seven weeks late in the year and never fully recovered.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was a prolific author, writing with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system.

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President Theodore Roosevelt said that the American character—indeed a new "American race" had emerged from the heroic wilderness hunters and Indian fighters, acting on the frontier with little government help.

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In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt became embroiled in a widely publicized literary debate known as the nature fakers controversy.

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President Theodore Roosevelt agreed with Burroughs's criticisms, and published several essays of his own denouncing the booming genre of "naturalistic" animal stories as "yellow journalism of the woods".

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President Theodore Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy", despite the widespread public association with said moniker, and was quick to point out this to those who referred to him as such, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was an active Freemason and member of the Sons of the American Revolution.

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British scholar Marcus Cunliffe evaluates the liberal argument that President Theodore Roosevelt was an opportunist, exhibitionist, and imperialist.

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President Theodore Roosevelt argues that Roosevelt's foreign policy was better than his detractors allege.

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President Theodore Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, "The Strenuous Life".

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President Theodore Roosevelt continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during the winter.

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President Theodore Roosevelt began to believe in the utility of jiu-jitsu training after training with Yoshitsugu Yamashita.

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Concerned that the United States would lose its military supremacy to rising powers like Japan, President Theodore Roosevelt began to advocate for jiu-jitsu training for American soldiers.

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Feminists annoyed by the posturing of men like President Theodore Roosevelt, insisted that women were just as capable of learning jiu-jitsu.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper's Weekly, showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood in 1905.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several per day in multiple languages.

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President Theodore Roosevelt took aggressive positions regarding war with Spain in 1898, Colombia in 1903, and especially with Germany, from 1915 to 1917.

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President Theodore Roosevelt gloried in war, was thrilled by military history, and placed warlike qualities high in his scale of values.

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President Theodore Roosevelt attended church regularly and was a lifelong adherent of the Reformed Church in America, an American affiliate of the Dutch Reformed Church.

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President Theodore Roosevelt was inspired less by the Passion of Christ than by the Golden Rule—that appeal to reason amounting, in his mind, to a worldly rather than heavenly law.

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President Theodore Roosevelt publicly encouraged church attendance and was a conscientious churchgoer himself.

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President Theodore Roosevelt sought to replace the 19th-century laissez-faire economic environment with a new economic model which included a larger regulatory role for the federal government.

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President Theodore Roosevelt believed that 19th-century entrepreneurs had risked their fortunes on innovations and new businesses, and that these capitalists had been rightly rewarded.

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President Theodore Roosevelt, trained in biology, was a social Darwinist who believed in survival of the fittest.

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President Theodore Roosevelt deplored many of the increasingly popular idealistic liberal themes, such as were promoted by William Jennings Bryan, the anti-imperialists, and Woodrow Wilson.

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President Theodore Roosevelt argued that if a country could not protect its own interests, the international community could not help very much.

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President Theodore Roosevelt ridiculed disarmament proposals that were increasingly common.

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President Theodore Roosevelt saw no likelihood of an international power capable of checking wrongdoing on a major scale.

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On his international outlook, President Theodore Roosevelt favored spheres of influence, whereby one great power would generally prevail, such as the United States in the Western Hemisphere or Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historians credit President Theodore Roosevelt for changing the nation's political system by permanently placing the "bully pulpit" of the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues.

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Dalton says President Theodore Roosevelt is remembered as "one of the most picturesque personalities who has ever enlivened the landscape".

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President Theodore Roosevelt promoted competitive sports like boxing and jiu-jitsu for physically strengthening American men.

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President Theodore Roosevelt believed that organizations like the Boy Scouts of America, founded in 1910, could help mold and strengthen the character of American boys.

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President Theodore Roosevelt is the only president to have received the Medal of Honor.

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President Theodore Roosevelt's "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick" ideology is still quoted by politicians and columnists in different countries—not only in English, but in translations to various other languages.

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President Theodore Roosevelt has been portrayed in films and television series such as Brighty of the Grand Canyon, The Wind and the Lion, Rough Riders, My Friend Flicka, and Law of the Plainsman.

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Museum president Ellen V Futter said the decision did not reflect a judgment about Roosevelt but was driven by the sculpture's "hierarchical composition".

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